||OBJECTIVE: To review the most common neurological disorders associated with various vaccines, and offer suggestions aiming at a better understanding if a causal relationship between the neurological complications and the vaccination is feasible. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed using combination of the following items: vaccines, vaccination, immunization and neurological complications. Review of reports and publications from the World Health Organizations, US Centers for Disease Control and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System regarding safety and common neurological complications following vaccinations. Especial attention was given to the incidence of complications in various Latin American countries. RESULTS: Neurological complications following vaccination are rare, and in most cases, represent a monophasic neurological event with good clinical recovery. However, serious and fatal complications have been reported. In general, neurological adverse events may not be causally related to the vaccine, and occur at much lower rates than same events following natural disease. DISCUSSION: Recent climatic changes and frequent international travel have changed the epidemiological spectrum of some infectious diseases. In view of the rapidly growing number of vaccines available and the need to implement massive immunization campaigns in several regions of the world, it is imperative to understand the potential adverse reactions of vaccinations. Neurological disorders are among the most serious, and on rare occasions, life-threatening complications after vaccination.